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Polygonum Cuspidatum Extract (Polygonum cuspidatum; Reynoutria sachalinense)
Part used: Root
Specification: Resveratrol 98% HPLC; Polydatin 1%--99% HPLC; Physcion 1% min. HPLC; Emodin 1% --60% HPLC; Trans Resveratrol 50% HPLC;
The protophyte of Polygonum is regarded as rhizome and root of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc., perennial herbaceous, being one of the Chinese medicinal herbs most in use in ancient China.
Cultivation: Fond of warm weather in nature, Polygonum better grows in moist & loose soil. Choose the arenaceous soil rich of humus when cultivating. It’s also suitable to be cultivated by the ditch, in woodland of the hillside, and in front of or behind the house. Before soil preparation, apply tens of Kg of organic fertilizer per Mu. Plough the fields deep to 20-30cm. Prepare the earth as bed after ploughing.
Harvest: Administration by root and rhizome, Polygonum can be digged both in spring and autumn. Root-like stem and stem, leaf are better to be gathered during spring and summer. And the root is better to be gathered in spring and autumn. Cut it to pieces while fresh after cleaning and then leave to dry in the sunshine. Those with strong root and non-withered inside are considerably as good ones. Remove the fibrous root and the tail, cut to pieces after cleaning, leave to dry in the sunshine, keep in dry places. Be cautious of mould-proof & worm-eaten. Prepared small pieces should be stored in wooden case and jar.
Distribution: Polygonum most grows in ravine, by the river and in shady-warm places under trees, mainly distributed in the south of Changjiang River, Shan’xi, Henan and Shandong provinces in China.
The main chemical composition:
There are mainly anthraquinones, stilbenes, flavonoids, naphthoquinone, polysaccharides, amino acids and trace elements in Polygonum Cuspidatum.
(1) Anthraquinones: With two classifications in Polygonum:
1). Dissociative chinones：mainly as emodin, chrysophanol, rhein, physcion, questin & fallacinol.
2). Anthraquinonic glycoside: mainly as physcion-8-ß-D-glucoside & emodin-8-ß-D-glucoside.
(2) Stilbenes: Stilbene is the major functional ingredient in Polygonum, mainly as resveratrol, polydatin, with the structure as below:
|Molecular Formula: C14H12O3; Molecular Weight: 228.25|
Chromaticity acicular crystal, mp254～257℃;
UVλmax(MeOH)nm(lgε): 216(4.40), 306(4.47), 322(4.45);
IRνmax(KBr)cm-1: 3260,1610, 1590, 1510,1250, 970.
MS/z: 228(M+,100), 211(5)199(3), 114(3), 76(2). 1HNMR.13CNMR
Flavonoids in Polygonum contains glucofrangulin, quercetin, quercetin-3-arabinoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-galactoside, luteolin-7-glucoside & three kinds of derivative of protocatechuic acid, (+)-catechin, 2,5-dimethyl-7-hydroxychromone in apigenin.
(4) Naphthoquinone & anthraquinonic glycoside
There are 2-methoxy-6-acetylmethyljuglone & torachrysone-8-O-D-glucoside in naphthoquinone & anthraquinonic glycoside, which are isolated from Polygonum.
(5) Other ingredients:
There are 7-hydroxy-4-methoxy-5-methylcoumarin in Polygonum. Polygonum still contains of free amino acids, and inorganic elements such as Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, K, Se & Mo, further with palmitate, stearic acid and arachidonic acid.
1. Efficacy & mechanism to anti-cancer and to strengthen immunity: Resveratrol in Polygonum is the major active ingredient, which has effect to anti-cancer and to strengthen immunity through research. Resveratrol has very strong effect to clear oxidant free radical, along with inhibiting the damage and mutation to the body caused by free radical. Resveratrol has the optional power to cancer cells.
2. Resveratrol can inhibit protein tyrosine kinase, which is the material to make catalysis of tyrosine. Resveratrol’s inhibition to protein tyrosine kinase is due to act on anti-mutation by inhibiting the function of kinase. The mechanism is mainly to inhibit the synthesis of cells of DNA and RNA.
3. Resveratrol has very strong inhibition to the reaction of lipid peroxidation caused by free radical system, also stronger inhibition to lipid peroxidation on the model of artificial cell of lecithin lipid. It can obviously reduce the content of MDA in the tissues, increase the activation of SOD, CAT and GSH-px, thus with protective effect to cerebral anaemia and tissue damages.
4. Resveratrol may strengthen the immunity. It can also recover the inhibited characteristic of cells in the burnt rat, with effective power to the reactive ability of damagedantigen singal, to breeding ability, to synthetic ability of white blood cell medium Ⅱ and to synthetic ability of antibody through lymph cell.